Hello,
We are conducting research where we have combined items from several instruments and conducted factor analysis in SPSS. We then used the items connected to their respective factors as they loaded in SPSS. However, when we run the SmartPLS , the factor loadings (outer loadings) are different from the SPSS factor loadings. What might be the potential reasons for this. The items did not load as anticipated but we maintained the same factor structure for the constructs in SmartPLS.
Any ideas about the differences would be appreciated.
Thanks,
Art
SPSS Factor loadings and SmartPLS factor loadings
 cringle
 SmartPLS Developer
 Posts: 812
 Joined: Tue Sep 20, 2005 9:13 am
 Real name and title: Prof. Dr. Christian M. Ringle
 Location: Hamburg (Germany)
 Contact:
Re: SPSS Factor loadings and SmartPLS factor loadings
You find a couple of answers to this question in this discussion forum (e.g., viewtopic.php?f=12&t=2666&p=8088&hilit= ... ings#p8088)
The results differ, that's the expected outcome.
SPSS does not conduct a PLS path modeling analysis. Hence the factors and scores differ. PLS determines the scores from the model estimation of composites. The factorbased estimation in SPSS only focuses on the construct.
These articles give you some additional insights:
Where the bias lies: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 6316304404
Five perspectives: https://rsw.beck.de/docs/librariesprovi ... f?sfvrsn=0
Also, here you find an intro on PLSSEM:
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... n_Modeling
What you can try it to create a construct Y1 with indicators x1 to x2. Then your create a second construct Y2 with the same indicators x1 and x2. Contect both construct with a path (the direction does not matter) and run the PLS algorithm in SmartPLS. Here, you get outer loadings that are identical to principal component anaylsis resutls in SPSS. Why? The PLS path model does not use an additional conext (i.e. other constructs) and, thus, the loadings are created only by the context of the one construct that your are looking at. Otherwise, the loadings of factor models and PLS differ.
Best
Christian
The results differ, that's the expected outcome.
SPSS does not conduct a PLS path modeling analysis. Hence the factors and scores differ. PLS determines the scores from the model estimation of composites. The factorbased estimation in SPSS only focuses on the construct.
These articles give you some additional insights:
Where the bias lies: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 6316304404
Five perspectives: https://rsw.beck.de/docs/librariesprovi ... f?sfvrsn=0
Also, here you find an intro on PLSSEM:
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... n_Modeling
What you can try it to create a construct Y1 with indicators x1 to x2. Then your create a second construct Y2 with the same indicators x1 and x2. Contect both construct with a path (the direction does not matter) and run the PLS algorithm in SmartPLS. Here, you get outer loadings that are identical to principal component anaylsis resutls in SPSS. Why? The PLS path model does not use an additional conext (i.e. other constructs) and, thus, the loadings are created only by the context of the one construct that your are looking at. Otherwise, the loadings of factor models and PLS differ.
Best
Christian
Prof. Dr. Christian M. Ringle, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), SmartPLS
 Literature on PLSSEM: https://www.smartpls.com/documentation
 Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.de/citations?use ... AAAJ&hl=de
 Literature on PLSSEM: https://www.smartpls.com/documentation
 Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.de/citations?use ... AAAJ&hl=de

 PLS Junior User
 Posts: 8
 Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2016 3:02 pm
 Real name and title: Arthur Bangert Associate Professor
Re: SPSS Factor loadings and SmartPLS factor loadings
Hello Christian,
Thank you very much for your explanation. I very much appreciate the resources that you sent and I definitely review them.
Thanks again,
Art
Thank you very much for your explanation. I very much appreciate the resources that you sent and I definitely review them.
Thanks again,
Art

 PLS Junior User
 Posts: 1
 Joined: Thu May 02, 2019 11:12 pm
 Real name and title: Sara Peterson
Re: SPSS Factor loadings and SmartPLS factor loadings
Dear Christian,
Can you explain why there is a slight difference between the Construct Reliability and Validity Matrix when we run SmartPLS algorithm for path and then factor analysis. Can you quantify this difference? I see that the loadings change slightly as well. Is this the cause of this difference?
Which do I use when reporting construct validity and reliability?
Thanks for your help.
Can you explain why there is a slight difference between the Construct Reliability and Validity Matrix when we run SmartPLS algorithm for path and then factor analysis. Can you quantify this difference? I see that the loadings change slightly as well. Is this the cause of this difference?
Which do I use when reporting construct validity and reliability?
Thanks for your help.