Hi,

does anybody know how to apply the orthogonalizing approach (i.e. residual centering) for moderating effects?

I only find these three options when creating a moderating effect:

1) use original indicator values

2) standardize indicator values

3) mean-center indicator values

Is option #3 equivalent to residual centering?

Thanks for your help!

## Interaction effect: Othogonalizing (residual centering)

For orthogonalization, you need to first center (I prefer to standardize)the variables that form the interaction term, then regress the product of these two centered variables on the centered variables. Use the residual as the interaction term.

If you have variables A and B that are centered, you would need to run the following regression equation

A*B=b1*A+b2*B+e

e is the orthogonalized interaction term.

If you want to orthogonalize the indicators, you need to do that with some other statistical software (PASW, Stata, R, etc)

If you want create an orthogonalized interaction term based on the PLS construct scores, you need to export these construct scores from SmartPLS, and then import them to another statistical software and calculate the residuals there.