Second order vs First order calculation error

PLS is broadly applied in modern business research. This forum is the right place for discussions on the use of PLS in the fields of Marketing, Strategic Management, Information Technology etc.
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PLS Junior User
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Joined: Sun Nov 05, 2017 11:17 am
Real name and title: Manisa

Second order vs First order calculation error

Post by maniesa1478 » Sun Nov 05, 2017 11:37 am

My current framework is similar to the below link. The author uses SmartPLS 3.0 to calculate the data.

Notice that 'Airport Physical Environment' is the 2nd order variable for the 4 variables (layout, facility, functionality, cleanliness). Airport Physical Environment is without any indicators.

However, when I applied the same framework, I received error 'there must be a valid pathmodel for calculation'. What did I do wrong with my model?

How did the other scholar managed to calculate and I can't? Appreciate anyone help.

Thank you

SmartPLS Developer
Posts: 820
Joined: Tue Mar 28, 2006 11:09 am
Real name and title: Dr. Jan-Michael Becker

Re: Second order vs First order calculation error

Post by jmbecker » Sun Nov 05, 2017 8:18 pm

All constructs need indicators in PLS. Therefore you need to use approaches that try to identify the second-order constructs, which are usually either the repeated indicator approach or the two-stage approach.

You can find information on this issue in the following publications:
Becker, J.-M., K. Klein, and M. Wetzels (2012). Formative Hierarchical Latent Variable Models in PLS-SEM: Recommendations and Guidelines, Long Range Planning, 45 (5/6), 359-394.
Kuppelwieser, V., and M. Sarstedt (2014). Applying the Future Time Perspective Scale to Advertising Research, International Journal of Advertising, 33(1), 113-136.
Ringle, C. M., M. Sarstedt, and D. W. Straub (2012). A Critical Look at the Use of PLS-SEM in MIS Quarterly, MIS Quarterly, 36 (1), iii-xiv.
Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. 2018. Advanced Issues in Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dr. Jan-Michael Becker, University of Cologne, SmartPLS Developer
Researchgate: ... v=hdr_xprf
GoogleScholar: ... AAAJ&hl=de

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